InSTePP Innovation Accounts

InSTePP’s International Innovation Accounts consist of a cumulative body of data and measurement methods on the inputs and outputs to innovation processes generally, with an emphasis on innovation indicators for the life sciences (health, and, especially, food and agriculture). The collection currently includes detailed U.S. and worldwide data on the investments in and spending on research and development (R&D) overall, and food and agricultural R&D in particular, for both the public and private sectors; worldwide patent count and patent family data pertaining to genetics and genomics innovations in the life sciences; worldwide data on plant varietal rights; and indicators of the uptake and use of agricultural innovations, with an emphasis on genetic (crop varietal) innovations in agriculture.

Food and Agricultural R&D Data Series

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Food and Agricultural R&D Data Series

Version 3.5 (completed 2016)

This version of the series involved a) a revision and update of the U.S. agPERD series for the period 1889-2013, b) a revision and update of the U.S. agBERD series for the period 1953-2011, c) a revision and update of the global agPERD series for 130 countries for the period 1960-2011 (as well as a satellite series for 28 countries of the Former Soviet Union for various years during the period 1960 to 2011), and d) a substantial revision and update of the global agBERD series for 128 countries covering the period 1980-2011. State- and national-level estimates of agPERD for the United States are also updated, and now cover the entire 20th century and, more specifically, the period 1889 to 2013.

Version 3.5 authors: Philip Pardey, Connie Chan-Kang, Steven Dehmer and Jason Beddow


"Reshuffling the Global R&D Deck, 1980-2050" 


"Agricultural R&D is on the Move" - Comment (2016)

"InSTePP International Innovation Accounts: Research and Development Spending, version 3.5" - Prepublication (2016)

"InSTePP International Innovation Accounts: Research and Development Spending, version 3.5" - Documentation (2016) 

Version 2.0 (completed 2012)

Version 1.0 (completed 2009)

This beta version of the InSTePP global food and agricultural R&D series represents a revised and updated estimate of spending on U.S. food and agricultural R&D carried out by public agencies (agPERD), building on prior versions of this public sector series developed by Pardey, Chan-Kang and Hallaway. The series includes intramural spending on R&D by the USDA and state-level estimates of spending by the State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAESs) and other cooperating institutions spanning the period 1889-2007.

To complement the agPERD estimates, an initial U.S. series of agBERD (spending on food and agricultural R&D carried out by private firms) for the period 1950-2006 was compiled from firm-level data by Dehmer and Pardey.

Version 1.0 authors: Philip Pardey, Connie Chan-Kang, Michelle Hallaway and Steven Dehmer


"SAES, USDA Intramural, and Extension Expenditures for the 48 Continguous States, 1890-2007"


"The Economics of Innovation and Technical Change in Agriculture" (2010)

Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending (2010)

Reassessing International Research for Food and Agriculture (2010)

“South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change”  (2010)

"Agricultural Research, Productivity, and Food Prices in the Long Run" (2009)

"Public Funding for Research into Specialty Crops" (2008)

“Public Funding for Research into Specialty Crops” (2007)

Agricultural Research: A Growing Global Divide? (2006)

Prior Estimates (1984-2008)

The material listed in this part of the collection was developed by InSTePP Fellows and personnel (and other collaborators), including work conducted during the 1980s and 1990s at the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), The Hague and during the 1990s and early 2000s at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C., as well as work conducted at the University of Minnesota on and off for the entire period beginning in the early 1980s.


Ag R&D deflators

This section includes versions of the InSTePP agricultural R&D price index that has been updated and rebased periodically since 1989.

InSTePP Ag R&D Price Index (2023-12-04)


  • Working Paper
  • Publication Citation: Pardey, P.G., B.J. Craig and M.L. Hallaway. "U.S. Agricultural Research Deflators: 1890-1985." Research Policy 18(5)(October, 1989): 289-296. (Link)